Ghost Candidates Haunt Brazilian Elections

In a measure to improve gender equality in government, Brazil instituted minimum quotas for female candidates. But rather than dedicate themselves to real change, parties have added "phantom candidates"--unwilling women who run in name only--to ballots, fulfilling quotas but deceiving the electorate in the process. Often, these candidates gain zero votes, a strong indicator of fraud. Brazil is ranked 154th globally based on its women in congress, with women making up 10 percent of its lower house and 15 percent of its Senate.

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